Technical and Disclaimer Info.
The Pro.file Performance System Questionnaire is a personality inventory that produces a wealth of information for self-awareness.
Personality inventories report non-cognitive traits which are more subjective in nature.
There are common misperceptions and confusion regarding “testing” - some people believe that testing is illegal. This is not true in any jurisdiction. In the USA The Supreme Court has ruled that testing “is not only legal, but valuable” when done appropriately (Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 1971). In Canada Provincial Human Rights commissions handle the matter differently, but tests are fully legal.
The Pro.file Performance System Questionnaire is the latest iteration of the adjective check- list assessment technique. These types of word-lists have an established track record as a method of assessing personality traits. The origins of the adjective checklist can be traced to the work of Hartshorne and May (1928). The first researchers to use the adjective checklist, they used 80 pairs of antonyms as a way of measuring personality or character.
Allport and Odbert (1936) used a dictionary of common English words to identify thou- sands of words that could describe personality. They identified 17,953 words and stimulated much research into how this could be distilled into a smaller and more manageable list to be used as a personality measure.
Cattell in the 1940s, used factor analysis to reduce Allport and Odbert’s list into a more manageable list of personality traits. Gough followed with research in the 1940s and then published the first widely used adjective checklist in 1950. In 1949 Walter V. Clarke introduced the first version of the technique intended solely for business applications.
The Pro.file Performance System was developed by The Assessment and Development Group International Inc. (ADGI), a consulting firm specializing in assessment technologies. The initial statistical analysis was undertaken for ADGI by Organization and Management Solutions, a division of the Guelph Centre for Organizational Research Inc., and completed in June 1999. The first version of the OMS contained 136 words culled from a broad examination of existing adjective checklists. Using Item Analysis as part of the initial statistical work, the number of items was reduced to the current 108, descriptive statistics were developed, and the norms were established. Since the population included in the original research was drawn from business organizations in both the United States and Canada, the norms may be considered North American. Subsequent studies are planned and will be under- taken by Organisational Solutions, a UK-based psychometric consulting specialist managed by Dr. Paul Brewerton, BA,MA, MSc, C.Psychol(Occ), PhD.
The Pro.file Performance System Questionnaire is a self-report inventory, which generally takes about ten minutes to complete.
The instrument measures seven personality constructs: assertiveness, sociability, patience/pro-activeness, discipline (need for structure), behavioral adaptability, emotional containment, and originality of thinking. Using two scales, Basic Characteristics to measure natural attributes and traits, and Job Adaptation to measure perceived job behaviors, Pro.file Performance System allows users to look at natural behaviors as well as the changes people make in adjusting to their work settings.
Acceptable personality inventories must exhibit statistical evidence of their validity and reliability. Validity means that the instrument measures what it purports to measure. For instance, the Pro.file Performance System measures the construct called assertiveness and there 18 words in each part which reflect this construct. In order to prove all 18 words do, in fact, measure assertiveness a construct validity
study was conducted using a technique called principle component analysis (PCA).
A further step in the validity process is to correlate the Pro.file Performance System scores within each construct against the scores of another personality inventory measuring identical or near-identical constructs. This is done by having a random selection of people complete both inventories. The correlations must be high enough (statistically significant at .05 or even better .01) in order to have acceptable validity. The Pro.file Performance System Questionnaire was correlated against the OAD Survey, a well-regarded and similar personality inventory.
Reliability is a measure of the stability of the inventory and the extent to which it is free of measurement error. For a test to be valid it first has to be reliable. Reliability establishes the extent to which external influences affect the test outcomes. The higher the reliability the less significant are the external influences and the more stable will be the test results. Of the various reliability tests (e.g. test-retest, split-half, and internal consistency) for Pro.file Performance System the more conservative measure of reliability, internal consistency, was chosen.
All inventories can be susceptible to faking – responding in a man- ner that is not truthful but which serves other needs of the test taker. With the Pro.file Performance System the most likely scenario is checking words that the respondent believes the employer would like to see checked. Any inventory or test that seeks non-verifiable information is subject to faking. However, research from many sources has shown that few people attempt to falsify their results, and even fewer when they are told that faked responses can be detected. It has also been shown that deceptive responses often manifest themselves in other ways, including work performance.
The trick is how to minimize faking or detecting it when it does occur:
1.Let the respondent know that faked responses can be detected.
2. Sometimes, but rarely, invalid responses may occur if the respondent lacks insight into his or her own characteristics, is self-deceptive, is extremely fearful of criticism, or has an inordinate desire for attention or sympathy.
In most instances faked or avoidance responses can be detected when reviewing Pro.file Performance System results.
The interpretation and evaluation of Pro.file Performance System Questionnaire results must be limited to individuals who have received certified training in its measurements, applications, and analysis, which is provided in the Maximizing Human Performance workshop. A proper usage of Pro.file Performance System requires skilled analysis of the graphical results.
The Pro.file Performance System scoring software generates a variety of written reports management tools to facilitate communication about people - motivating them, and managing them.
The Pro.file Performance System Questionnaire should be administered in the individual’s primary language whenever possible to ensure the best results.